United and Harmonious Multiracial Province
Population and Nationality
Jilin Province had a total population of 27.5128 million (by the end of 2013), of which the population in urban areas accounted for 54.20%.
Jilin is a multiracial province and has a total of 56 nationalities including the Korean, Manchu, Mongolian, Hui and Sibo nationalities. In addition to the Han nationality, the 55 minority nationalities account for around 8% of the province's total population. The Korean nationality is mainly distributed in east Jilin Province, such as Yanbian, Jilin, Tonghua and Baishan; the Mongolian and Sibo nationalities are mainly distributed in Baicheng and Songyuan Cities in west Jilin Province; the Manchu and Hui nationalities are mainly distributed in Changchun, Jilin, Tonghua and Siping cities.
Regional Autonomy for Nationalities
According to the nationality policy of the Chinese Communist Party, Jilin Province has instituted a system of regional autonomy in minority areas and established one autonomous prefecture and three autonomous counties, namely, Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, Qian Gorlos Mongolian Autonomous County, Changbai Korean Autonomous County and Yitong Manchu Autonomous County. Besides, there are 33 nationality town seats (towns). Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, known as the largest community of the Korean nationality and also the only Korean autonomous prefecture in China, has been honored the title "Model Prefecture for National Unity and Progress" by the State Council for consecutively five years.
All minorities in Jilin Province have created colorful folk cultures in their long-term production activities. Different nationalities vary from foods, clothes and etiquettes.
The Korean nationality Jilin Province is a main inhabit region for Koreans. Koreans have their own language, and have a glorious tradition of being hard-working, strong and brave. In the Anti-Japanese War, the War of Liberation and the war to resist U.S. aggression and aid Korea, Koreans had made tremendous sacrifices and great contribution to the liberation of the Chinese nation and the founding and consolidation of the New China. Koreans prefer wearing pure white clothes, pay attention to etiquette, respect the old and cherish the young, can both sing and dance. Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture was established on September 3, 1952, and is known as the "land of song and dance" and the "land of football".
The Manchu nationality Jilin Province is one of birthplace of Manchus. Manchus have their own language and have had a good command of Chinese. Manchu women like wearing cheongsam, which is elegant in style and has distinctive national characteristics, and cheongsam have become Chinese traditional women's clothes and remain popular. Manchu's traditional customs in etiquettes, sacrifices, wedding, funeral, inhabitation and child rearing have an influence to many areas. Their painting, paper cutting, song and dance, folk art, folk tales and national sport have a long, uninterrupted history and remain popular. Manchu diet is unique, of which "Chinese Feast" enjoys widespread renown.
The Mongolian nationality Mongolians have their own language. Their costumes, diet, housing and transport, architecture, wedding, funeral, taboos and etiquette have distinctive ethnic characteristics. Mongolians can both sing and dance. The most popular folk musical instrument is the four-stringed fiddle with strings tuned in pairs, also known as four strings. On every anniversary of the establishment of autonomous county and ethnic township and the Mongolian traditional festivals, Naadam (Entertainment) Festival will be held to conduct horse racing, Buzkashi, wrestling and other national sports events and song and dance performances.
(Updated to July 14, 2015)